Abs exercises aren’t enough. Here’s what really helps build a strong, stable foundation for your whole body.
Your core is, quite literally, the core of everything you do.
Whether you’re playing with your grandkids, climbing the stairs, or shopping for groceries, your core is at work—keeping you upright, stabilizing your body, and helping to power your arms and legs, says Michael Silverman, P.T., director of rehabilitation and wellness at Northern Westchester Hospital in New York. It even helps regulate breathing and bladder function.
Unfortunately, the natural decline in muscle mass and strength that occurs with aging isn’t limited to your arms and legs. It also affects the core, raising your risk for poor mobility, aches and pains, and even incontinence issues, he says.
Simply put: You want to engage and strengthen your core at every opportunity, whether you’re at the gym, at home, or out and about with everyday tasks. (Wish you had a gym membership? Click here to check your eligibility for free access to gyms and fitness classes nationwide through SilverSneakers.)
Here, experts explain the best ways to keep your core in top shape.
1. Prioritize Total-Body Standing Exercises
“Since the core is designed to act primarily as a stabilizer and force-transfer center, total-body strength exercises actually work the core in the way that it was designed to function,” explains Leython Williams, D.P.T., a physical therapist and facility manager at Athletico Physical Therapy in Lincolnshire, Illinois.
In fact, according to findings published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, total-body strength moves such as squats train the core to a greater degree than some core-centric exercises, like the superman and side bridge. Plus, total-body movements burn major calories while improving overall strength and function.
A terrific total-body move: squats. Core training aside, the squat is the most important exercise we can do. Find out why—and the best way to do them for your body—in our guide to the #1 exercise for older adults.
Standing exercises using a resistance band, like the chest punch and row, also strengthen the core. Check out the video below and this total-body resistance workout.
2. Incorporate Single-Sided Moves
Your core is your balance center. Whenever you’re standing on one foot—or simply carrying a bag or purse on one side of your body—your core is what keeps you from tipping over. And according to research published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology, exercising one side of your body at a time engages your core better than performing two-sided moves.
Here’s how to do it: Hold a weight in one hand down by your side and walk, keeping your shoulders square and upright—no leaning! Walk with the weight at your side for five to 10 feet, then put it down, pick it up with your other hand, and walk back. Repeat two to three times.
3. Practice Deep Breathing
Your core muscles play an important role in your lung function. And if you don’t want to lose it, you better use it! To actively engage your core muscles with every breath, practice what experts call diaphragmatic or belly breathing, Silverman says.
Here’s how to do it: Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor or a comfortable surface. Place one hand on your stomach and one on your chest. From here, take a deep inhale through your nose, letting your belly fill with air. You should feel the hand on your stomach rise, but the hand on your chest should stay still. Once you can’t inhale anymore, squeeze your core muscles to gently force all of the air out through your mouth. You should feel the hand on your stomach drop and your belly tighten.
Try to perform this exercise for one minute twice per day. As you get comfortable, try doing it in a seated or standing position. Ideally, you should breathe this way 24/7. And the more you practice, the easier and more automatic it will become. Great news: Not only will deep breathing strengthen your core and lungs, you’ll also tame stress.
For two more quick and simple breathing exercises, click here.
4. Pay Attention to Your Posture
Posture and core strength are the perfect pair. Work on one, and you’ll automatically improve the other. After all, many of the muscles that make up your core—including the transverse abdominis and erector spinae muscles—are in charge of keeping your spine stable, supported, and in correct alignment, says Tiffany Chag, C.S.C.S., a strength coach at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City.
“Check in with yourself throughout the day, whether you’re standing, walking, or sitting, and ask yourself, ‘How’s my posture?’” Chag says. “Tap your belly. Is it tight and working?” If not, that’s your cue to stop slouching.
Consider setting an alarm on your phone or posting a note on the bathroom mirror to remind yourself to check in on your posture. Another smart move: Follow this four-step plan to get your posture back on track.
5. Trade Crunches for Core Stabilization Exercises
It’s no mistake that dedicated core exercises are the final item on this list. They’re helpful, but they’re not the most important thing for building core strength. “Most older adults should perform core isolation exercise two to three times per week,” Silverman says, noting that at 60 or older, the best core exercises will likely be different from those that were right for you at 20.
It’s best for older adults to opt out of situps and crunches—which can exacerbate any existing low-back issues—in favor of stabilization exercises such as plank, side plank, bird dog, or bridge, Silverman says. The great news is you have exercise options on the floor, standing up, or even seated.
If you’re comfortable getting down on the floor, grab a mat, and try this quick core workout.
If you prefer to stay off the floor, try a standing version of the plank with your hands flat on the kitchen counter or against a wall, and your feet flat on the floor. This modification will still be challenging but potentially more comfortable, Silverman says.
If you want a seated option, try this 10-minute chair workout for your core.
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